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This distribution changed the course of the levitra in many countries.Treatments Have Lowered Mortality RatesTreatments for infectious diseases often evolve over time. There is no treatment yet for hepatitis C, but over recent years treatments have evolved from those that make you very ill to those that are highly efficacious with few side effects.We are now seeing similar things in the erectile dysfunction levitra, just on an accelerated cheapest place to buy levitra timeline. With the aid of clinical studies, we now have treatments such as steroids, antiviral medications like Remdesivir and infusions of antibodies.

Physicians also know how to alter a patient’s position in ways that increase the chance of survival.treatment Development Could End levitraThis levitra could end if the levitra swept through cheapest place to buy levitra the population killing millions but leaving the survivors with natural immunity. More likely the levitra will snuff itself out when most of the population has been vaccinated with a erectile dysfunction treatment. That is especially true in parts of the world where cheapest place to buy levitra frequent testing and public health strategies are difficult to implement.It took many years to develop an influenza treatment, with the first available in 1942.

Other successes with smallpox and polio, and more recent ones like HPV and Haemophilus influenzae Type b, have provided blueprints for treatment development.Governments across the world have partnered with private companies to expedite the development of erectile dysfunction treatments. This has led to multiple different companies developing their own different versions of treatments. Normally, these take years to cheapest place to buy levitra develop.

However, by leveraging recent successes and accumulated knowledge, the timeline was accelerated significantly. Normally, new treatments go through phase cheapest place to buy levitra 1 (safety), phase 2 (efficacy) and phase 3 (comparison) trials, but as demonstrated in the current trials, phases 2 and 3 can be combined for expediency. And large-scale manufacturing can begin when the treatment is still in trials, potentially cutting years off the timeline.Technology is at the forefront of the development of these treatments.

Some of the erectile dysfunction treatments take advantage of mRNA technology, which essentially programs our cells to develop immune responses against erectile dysfunction.Others use levitraes as delivery mechanisms for erectile dysfunction proteins to which your body develops an immune response cheapest place to buy levitra. Both types have thus far been shown to be effective, but long-term safety will remain controversial when treatments are developed on such an expedited timeline.Lessons LearnedThis disease, which began in Wuhan, Hubei Province, China, and was first diagnosed in either November or December of 2019, is the perfect illustration of just how rapidly levitraes spread in a connected world. We got previews of what could happen from the recent cheapest place to buy levitra outbreaks of Ebola and Zika levitra, but the spread of erectile dysfunction has been on a different level.

It has underscored that when we receive warnings about contagious levitraes, rapid and decisive action must be taken in all parts of the world to reduce its spread.Where there is more strict compliance with public health policies, there have been profound reductions in levitra transmission.While the research that has made all this possible might fly under the radar right now, history will record this time as one of the greatest periods for scientific advancements.David Pride is an Associate Director of Microbiology, University of California San Diego. This article is republished from The Conversation under a Creative cheapest place to buy levitra Commons license. Read the original article.Humans go to extremes to collect salt.

We dig it up from underground deposits or wait patiently for pools of seawater to evaporate and leave cheapest place to buy levitra it behind, just so we can stir, sprinkle and scoop the mineral into our food.Our desire likely stems somewhat from biological need. €œWe have this hardwired, hedonic response to these concentrations of sodium that are physiologically relevant to us from an evolutionary perspective,” says Russell Keast, a food scientist at Deakin University in Australia. Sodium, which constitutes half of cheapest place to buy levitra each table salt molecule, keeps our nerves and muscle fibers functioning properly.

Early humans came across the compound relatively rarely, which could explain why we like the taste so much, Keast says. Enjoying the cheapest place to buy levitra biting taste would have ensured our early ancestors ate enough of the stuff when they found it. But the salt content in most diets has crossed into new territory.

Instead of consuming what we need for our bodies to function, most of us ingest too much salt because commercial food producers rely on the ingredient to make dishes appetizing and keep production running smoothly. Weaning diners off of our high-salt cheapest place to buy levitra diets is harder than it might seem, in part because it's in our nature to crave more of the mineral, Keast says. €œIt’s an evolutionary relic we’re stuck with."Running Salty InterferenceBesides being necessary for our bodies to operate, salt improves the way foods taste.

When mixed into a cheapest place to buy levitra dish, salt dampens the bitterness and enhances the sweetness in the other ingredients. Effectively this means salt can directly impact three of the five tastes our mouths detect. Sweet, bitter, cheapest place to buy levitra salty, sour and umami.

Exactly how salt remixes the taste of a food still isn’t clear, Keast says. Presumably, the shift happens at cheapest place to buy levitra a neurological level, after taste buds detect all the compounds in each bite and relay perception signals to our brains. Even more impressively, salt can achieve these food alterations without revealing itself as a detectable flavor.

In research where study participants sample a range of broths, cheapest place to buy levitra for example, plain veggie water lacks appeal. When the broth is salted, recipients perceive and enjoy the changed flavor but can’t identify what it is that tastes different. Only once the amount cheapest place to buy levitra of salt reaches what scientists call a “recognition threshold” do people taste so-called saltiness.

At that point, the appeal of the broth starts to drop, Keast says. A dish at it’s Goldylocks level of salt — not cheapest place to buy levitra too much and not too little — is when the overall taste is at its best. Salt ChemistryThe threshold at which salt levels become obvious (and unappealing) is different for each food, which explains why sodium content gets shockingly high in some products.

Grain-based foods, for example, easily incorporate high salt levels without ruining food taste. And in cheapest place to buy levitra the U.S. And U.K., breads, cereals, cookies and cakes account for about 30 to 50 percent of all the sodium a person consumes each day.

For these foods, high salt levels have less to do with flavor and more to do with product consistency, says Michael Nickerson, a food scientist at the University of cheapest place to buy levitra Saskatchewan. Breads — which are essentially flour, water, yeast and salt — reach an even and consistent rise thanks to that last ingredient.As yeast churns out carbon dioxide in dough, salt regulates how much of the gas each microbe produces, making sure the resulting air pockets in the final product aren’t too big. For the bread to rise in the first place, cheapest place to buy levitra gluten proteins in the grain need to organize into a network that stretches in response to the gas the yeast creates.

Here, too, salt pitches in. The mineral masks some of the positive cheapest place to buy levitra and negative charges on each gluten protein, helping the strands aggregate and build stronger networks.Simultaneously, the added salt helps the gluten bridges hold onto water and makes dough less sticky, saving commercial bakeries from nightmare scenarios. €œThis has a big implication in the big processing factories, in which they don't have to shut down the whole equipment, clean it all off, and start over again,” Nickerson says.Home bakers generally aren’t worried about their machinery gumming up with too-wet dough.

If kitchen experiments with bread suffer from insufficient salt, Nickerson says, it would likely involve collapsed portions that fell when the gluten networks were weak and the yeast went uncontrolled cheapest place to buy levitra. In commercial bakeries, consistency from loaf to loaf (or cracker to cracker) is key, so salt volumes get cranked much higher.Sodium OverloadHow to bring those salt levels back down drives some of Keast’s and Nickerson’s work. Because as helpful or tasty as salt may be, too much sodium cheapest place to buy levitra in the diet can raise blood pressure, which in turn raises risks of heart disease and stroke.

Simply cutting the ingredient from commercially-produced foods doesn’t go unnoticed. Customers think “reduced cheapest place to buy levitra sodium” soups, for example, taste worse, and brands don’t want one box of crackers to differ from the next. While fixes are in the works, the science of salt (and its substitutes) has a lot of room to grow, Keast says.

€œWhile we’ve got our theories and do our research, there’s still a lot left to be known.”.

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The levitra strained the mental health and personal relationships of many rural Iowans, while residents in larger towns tended to report physical health and economic challenges with greater frequency, according to the survey data collected between December 2020 and February 2021. The results illustrate how the levitra impacted communities in different ways and can inform how public policies are constructed to address these challenges, said David Peters, a professor of sociology at Iowa State University who led the survey effort."We know all towns aren't the same and didn't experience the levitra the same way," Peters said cheapest place to buy levitra. "Different communities have different needs, so you need a range of programs to help small towns recover from the levitra."The survey asked respondents in 73 Iowa communities to evaluate how the levitra has affected various aspects of their lives, including their physical and mental health as well as their financial situation.

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For example, one study found that rural patients receive 73 percent fewer specialty mental health visits than urban patients.Many hoped that telehealth could help minimize the disparity in mental health treatment between urban and rural Americans. Since rural cheapest place to buy levitra residents lack in-person care in their local community, they might use telehealth at higher rates than urban residents, thereby reducing the gap in the total amount of care (in-person and telehealth) received. Due in part to how telehealth was deployed before the levitra, telehealth use for the treatment of mental illness was growing much faster in rural areas compared to cities.Alas, during the levitra, the situation has flipped, with rural Americans now much less likely to use telehealth.

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A third study reported that while telehealth visits among cheapest place to buy levitra rural patients increased from 11 to 147 visits per 1,000 patients from 2012–19 to June 2020, telehealth growth was greater for urban patients, increasing from 7 to 220 visits per 1,000 patients.While the increase in overall telehealth use is a positive, its growth has likely increased the existing rural-urban disparity in mental health treatment. Over the coming years and without intervention, we might see this disparity grow even further.Reasons Why Rural Americans Are Less Likely To Use TelehealthThe most obvious reason why rural Americans are less likely to use telehealth than their urban counterparts is what has been called the “digital divide”—the relative absence of necessary technology or capacity to use that technology in rural communities. Limited broadband coverage is associated with cheapest place to buy levitra fewer telehealth visits.

Problems with poor internet coverage are most pronounced in states with a larger percentage of rural residents. For example, residents of Mississippi and Montana have the slowest average internet speeds in the US. 40 percent and 25 percent of their residents are without internet access, respectively.Improving Telehealth Access In cheapest place to buy levitra Rural CommunitiesHow do we address this concerning trend?.

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Currently 18 states have policies preventing the establishment cheapest place to buy levitra of community broadband. In 2021 alone, five states have introduced bills to eliminate these restrictions, including Arkansas, Idaho, Tennessee, and Montana.Another strategy is to further incentivize telehealth use in rural communities either through increased reimbursement or more investment in telehealth training and IT infrastructure. Targeted approaches that increase reimbursement in telehealth for rural patients could accelerate telehealth growth cheapest place to buy levitra in rural areas by encouraging non-rural providers to deliver care via telehealth to rural patients.

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For example, the USDA has invested $42 million to fund 86 projects building cheapest place to buy levitra telehealth centers in rural areas. In addition, the Morehouse School of Medicine is building telehealth centers in two counties in west-central Georgia to provide mental health and substance use treatment to rural residents in 9 underserved counties across the state.In a time of tremendous growth for telehealth, it is critical to focus on those being left behind. It will require action at the federal and state level to ensure equitable access to specialty mental health care in rural areas during this time and in the future..

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N/A 2020-03-12 2026-03-12 N/A 2028-03-12 bromfenac sodium sesquihydrate 171657 Prolensa Bausch &. Lomb Incorporated N/A 2015-03-26 2021-03-26 N/A 2023-03-26 burosumab 216239 Crysvita Kyowa Kirin Limited N/A 2018-12-05 2024-12-05 when does levitra go generic Yes 2027-06-05 cabotegravir sodium 227315 Vocabria ViiV Healthcare ULC N/A 2020-03-18 2026-03-18 N/A 2028-03-18 cabotegravir 227315 Cabenuva ViiV Healthcare ULC N/A 2020-03-18 2026-03-18 N/A 2028-03-18 cabozantinib (supplied as cabozantinib (S)-malate) 206230 Cabometyx Ipsen Biopharmaceuticals Canada Inc. N/A 2018-09-14 2024-09-14 N/A 2026-09-14 calcifediol 205392 Rayaldee Vifor Fresenius Medical Care Renal Pharma Ltd N/A 2018-07-10 2024-07-10 N/A 2026-07-10 canagliflozin 157505 Invokana Janssen Inc.

InvokametInvokamet XR 2014-05-23 2020-05-23 N/A 2022-05-23 caplacizumab 230001 Cablivi Sanofi-Aventis Canada Inc. N/A 2020-02-28 2026-02-28 N/A 2028-02-28 carfilzomib 184479 Kyprolis when does levitra go generic Amgen Canada Inc. N/A 2016-01-15 2022-01-15 N/A 2024-01-15 carglumic acid 171358 Carbaglu Recordati Rare Diseases N/A 2015-04-10 2021-04-10 Yes 2023-10-10 cedazuridine 234610 Inqovi Otsuka Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd.

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N/A 2017-11-29 2023-11-29 Yes 2026-05-29 coagulation factor IX, Fc fusion protein 163614 Alprolix Sanofi-Aventis Canada Inc. N/A 2014-03-20 2020-03-20 Yes when does levitra go generic 2022-09-20 cobimetinib 182788 Cotellic Hoffmann-La Roche Limited N/A 2016-02-22 2022-02-22 N/A 2024-02-22 crisaborole 206906 Eucrisa Pfizer Canada Inc. N/A 2018-06-07 2024-06-07 Yes 2026-12-07 cysteamine bitartrate 191347 Procysbi Horizon Pharma Ireland Ltd.

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N/A 2018-09-04 2024-09-04 N/A 2026-09-04 dapagliflozin propanediol 160877 Forxiga when does levitra go generic AstraZeneca Canada Inc. XigduoQtern 2014-12-12 2020-12-12 N/A 2022-12-12 daratumumab 187648 Darzalex Janssen Inc. Darzalex SC 2016-06-29 2022-06-29 N/A 2024-06-29 darolutamide 226146 Nubeqa Bayer Inc.

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N/A 2013-04-03 2019-04-03 Yes 2021-10-03 dinutuximab 212066 Unituxin United Therapeutics Corporation N/A 2018-11-28 2024-11-28 Yes 2027-05-28 dolutegravir sodium 161084 Tivicay ViiV Healthcare ULC TriumeqJulucaDovato 2013-10-31 when does levitra go generic 2019-10-31 Yes 2022-05-01 doravirine 211293 Pifeo Merck Canada Inc. Delstrigo 2018-10-12 2024-10-12 N/A 2026-10-12 dulaglutide 168671 Trulicity Eli Lilly Canada Inc. N/A 2015-11-10 2021-11-10 N/A 2023-11-10 dupilumab 201285 Dupixent Sanofi-Aventis Canada Inc.

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SynjardyGlyxambi 2015-07-23 2021-07-23 N/A when does levitra go generic 2023-07-23 enasidenib mesylate 217033 Idhifa Celgene Inc. N/A 2019-02-06 2025-02-06 N/A 2027-02-06 encorafenib 237413 Braftovi Pfizer Canada ULC N/A 2021-03-02 2027-03-02 N/A 2029-03-02 entrectinib 227517 Rozlytrek Hoffmann-La Roche Limited N/A 2020-02-10 2026-02-10 Yes 2028-08-10 eptinezumab 233288 Vyepti Lundbeck Canada Inc. N/A 2021-01-11 2027-01-11 N/A 2029-01-11 erdafitinib 224529 Balversa Janssen when does levitra go generic Inc.

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N/A 2017-12-07 2023-12-07 N/A 2025-12-07 iron isomaltoside 1000 193890 Monoferric Pharmacosmos A/S N/A 2018-06-22 2024-06-22 N/A 2026-06-22 isatuximab 229245 Sarclisa Sanofi-Aventis Canada Inc. N/A 2020-04-29 2026-04-29 N/A 2028-04-29 when does levitra go generic isavuconazole (supplied as isavuconazonium sulfate) 208919 Cresemba Avir Pharma Inc. N/A 2018-12-19 2024-12-19 N/A 2026-12-19 ivabradine hydrochloride 166949 Lancora Servier Canada Inc.

N/A 2016-12-23 2022-12-23 Yes 2025-06-23 ivermectin 172733 Rosiver Galderma Canada Inc. N/A 2015-04-22 2021-04-22 N/A 2023-04-22 ixazomib (supplied as ixazomib citrate) 190498 Ninlaro when does levitra go generic Takeda Canada Inc. N/A 2016-08-04 2022-08-04 N/A 2024-08-04 ixekizumab 184993 Taltz Eli Lilly Canada Inc.

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Lomb Incorporated N/A 2018-12-27 2024-12-27 N/A 2026-12-27 ledipasvir 173180 Harvoni Gilead Sciences Canada Inc. N/A 2014-10-15 2020-10-15 Yes 2023-04-15 lefamulin acetate 233292 Xenleta Sunovion Pharmaceuticals when does levitra go generic Canada Inc. N/A 2020-07-10 2026-07-10 N/A 2028-07-10 lemborexant 231286 Dayvigo Eisai Limited N/A 2020-11-04 2026-11-04 N/A 2028-11-04 lenvatinib mesylate 180877 Lenvima Eisai Limited N/A 2015-12-22 2021-12-22 Yes 2024-06-22 letermovir 204165 Prevymis Merck Canada Inc.

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N/A 2015-07-16 2021-07-16 N/A 2023-07-16 ravulizumab 217955 Ultomiris Alexion Pharma GmbH N/A 2019-08-28 2025-08-28 N/A 2027-08-28 recombinant haemagglutinin protein-strain A (H1N1) recombinant haemagglutinin protein-strain A (H3N2) recombinant haemagglutinin protein-strain B (Victoria) recombinant haemagglutinin protein-strain B (Yamagata) 235672 Supemtek Sanofi Pasteur Limited N/A 2021-01-14 2027-01-14 N/A 2029-01-14 recombinant human papillomalevitra types 31, 33, 45, 52 and 58 170006 Gardasil 9 Merck Canada Inc. N/A 2015-02-05 when does levitra go generic 2021-02-05 Yes 2023-08-05 recombinant neisseria meningitidis group B NHBA fusion protein, recombinant neisseria meningitidis group B NadA protein, recombinant neisseria meningitidis group B FHBP fusion protein, outer membrane vesicle (neisseria meningitidis group B NZ98/254 strain) 147275 Bexsero GlaxoSmithKline Inc. N/A 2013-12-06 2019-12-06 Yes 2022-06-06 recombinant porcine factor VIII (antihemophilic factor (recombinant), porcine sequence) 177290 Obizur Takeda Canada Inc.

N/A 2015-10-14 2021-10-14 N/A 2023-10-14 regorafenib monohydrate 157970 Stivarga Bayer Inc. N/A 2013-03-11 2019-03-11 Yes 2021-09-11 remdesivir 240551 when does levitra go generic Veklury Gilead Sciences Canada, Inc. N/A 2020-07-27 2026-07-27 N/A 2028-07-27 reslizumab 185873 Cinqair Teva Canada Limited N/A 2016-07-20 2022-07-20 Yes 2025-01-20 ribociclib (supplied as ribociclib succinate) 203884 Kisqali Novartis Pharmaceuticals Canada Inc.

N/A 2018-03-02 2024-03-02 N/A 2026-03-02 riociguat 162761 Adempas Bayer Inc. N/A 2013-09-19 2019-09-19 N/A 2021-09-19 ripretinib 234688 Qinlock Deciphera Pharmaceuticals, LLC N/A 2020-06-19 2026-06-19 N/A 2028-06-19 risankizumab 215753 Skyrizi AbbVie Corporation N/A 2019-04-17 2025-04-17 N/A 2027-04-17 risdiplam 242373 Evrysdi Hoffman-La when does levitra go generic Roche Limited N/A 2021-04-14 2027-04-14 Yes 2029-10-14 romidepsin 152293 Istodax Celgene Inc. N/A 2013-10-16 2019-10-16 N/A 2021-10-16 romosozumab 197713 Evenity Amgen Canada Inc.

N/A 2019-06-17 2025-06-17 N/A 2027-06-17 rupatadine (supplied as rupatadine fumarate) 186488 Rupall Medexus Pharmaceuticals Inc. N/A 2016-07-20 when does levitra go generic 2022-07-20 Yes 2025-01-20 sacubitril 182734 Entresto Novartis Pharmaceuticals Canada Inc. N/A 2015-10-02 2021-10-02 Yes 2024-04-02 safinamide (as safinamide mesylate) 207115 Onstryv Valeo Pharma Inc.

N/A 2019-01-10 2025-01-10 N/A 2027-01-10 sarilumab 191745 Kevzara Sanofi-aventis Canada Inc. N/A 2017-01-12 2023-01-12 N/A 2025-01-12 satralizumab 233642 Enspryng Hoffmann-La when does levitra go generic Roche Limited N/A 2020-06-01 2026-06-01 Yes 2028-12-01 sebelipase alfa 204085 Kanuma Alexion Pharma GmbH N/A 2017-12-15 2023-12-15 Yes 2026-06-15 secukinumab 170732 Cosentyx Novartis Pharmaceuticals Canada Inc. N/A 2015-02-27 2021-02-27 Yes 2023-08-27 selexipag 182114 Uptravi Janssen Inc.

N/A 2016-01-20 2022-01-20 N/A 2024-01-20 selpercatinib 243748 Retevmo Loxo Oncology Inc. N/A 2021-06-15 2027-06-15 Yes 2029-12-15 semaglutide 202059 Ozempic Novo Nordisk Canada Inc when does levitra go generic. Rybelsus 2018-01-04 2024-01-04 N/A 2026-01-04 siltuximab 174291 Sylvant EUSA Pharma (UK) Limited N/A 2014-12-03 2020-12-03 N/A 2022-12-03 simeprevir 164021 Galexos Janssen Inc.

N/A 2013-11-18 2019-11-18 N/A 2021-11-18 siponimod 223225 Mayzent Novartis Pharmaceuticals Canada Inc when does levitra go generic. N/A 2020-02-20 2026-02-20 N/A 2028-02-20 sodium zirconium cyclosilicate 218799 Lokelma AstraZeneca Canada Inc. N/A 2019-07-25 2025-07-25 N/A 2027-07-25 sofosbuvir 165043 Sovaldi Gilead Sciences Canada Inc.

HarvoniEpclusaVosevi 2013-12-13 2019-12-13 N/A 2021-12-13 solriamfetol hydrochloride 237511 Sunosi Jazz Pharmaceuticals Ireland Ltd when does levitra go generic. N/A 2021-05-13 2027-05-13 N/A 2029-11-13 sonidegib phosphate 229407 Odomzo Sun Pharma Global FZE N/A 2020-06-12 2026-06-12 N/A 2028-06-12 sucroferric oxyhydroxide 201492 Velphoro Vifor Fresenius Medical Care Renal Pharma Ltd. N/A 2018-01-05 2024-01-05 N/A 2026-01-05 sugammadex sodium 180385 Bridion Merck Canada Inc.

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N/A 2020-04-15 2026-04-15 N/A 2028-04-15 tenofovir alafenamide hemifumarate 181399 Genvoya when does levitra go generic Gilead Sciences Canada Inc. DescovyOdefseyVemlidySymtuzaBiktarvy 2015-11-27 2021-11-27 Yes 2024-05-27 tepotinib (supplied as tepotinib hydrochloride) 242300 Tepmetko EMD Serono, a Division of EMD Inc., Canada N/A 2021-05-27 2027-05-27 N/A 2029-05-27 teriflunomide 160646 Aubagio Genzyme Canada a division of Sanofi-aventis Canada Inc. N/A 2013-11-14 2019-11-14 Yes 2022-05-14 tesamorelin 131836 Egrifta Theratechnologies Inc.

N/A 2014-04-29 2020-04-29 N/A 2022-04-29 tezacaftor 211292 Symdeko Vertex Pharmaceuticals (Canada) Incorporated N/A 2018-06-27 2024-06-27 Yes 2026-12-27 tildrakizumab 224036 Ilumya Sun Pharma Global FZE N/A 2021-05-19 2027-05-19 N/A 2029-05-19 tisagenlecleucel 213547 / 213698 Kymriah Novartis Pharmaceuticals Canada when does levitra go generic Inc. N/A 2018-09-05 2024-09-05 Yes 2027-03-05 tofacitinib 154642 Xeljanz Pfizer Canada Inc. N/A 2014-04-17 2020-04-17 Yes 2022-10-17 trastuzumab deruxtecan 242104 Enhertu AstraZeneca Canada Inc.

N/A 2021-04-15 2027-04-15 N/A 2029-04-15 trastuzumab emtansine 162414 Kadcyla Hoffmann-La Roche Limited N/A when does levitra go generic 2013-09-11 2019-09-11 N/A 2021-09-11 trifarotene 221945 Aklief Galderma Canada Inc. N/A 2019-11-25 2025-11-25 Yes 2028-05-25 tipiracil hydrochloride 205852 Lonsurf Taiho Pharma Canada Inc. N/A 2018-01-25 2024-01-25 N/A 2026-01-25 triheptanoin 242196 Dojolvi Uagenyx Pharmaceutical Inc.

N/A 2021-02-15 when does levitra go generic 2027-02-15 Yes 2029-08-15 tucatinib 235295 Tukysa Seagen Inc. N/A 2020-06-05 2026-06-05 N/A 2028-06-05 turoctocog alfa 170796 Zonovate Novo Nordisk Canada Inc. N/A 2014-12-08 2020-12-08 Yes 2023-06-08 umeclidinium bromide 161585 when does levitra go generic Anoro Ellipta GlaxoSmithKline Inc.

Incruse Ellipta 2013-12-23 2019-12-23 N/A 2021-12-23 upadacitinib 223734 Rinvoq AbbVie Corporation N/A 2019-12-23 2025-12-23 N/A 2027-12-23 varicella-zoster levitra glycoprotein E (gE) 200244 Shingrix GlaxoSmithKline Inc. N/A 2017-10-13 2023-10-13 N/A 2025-10-13 vedolizumab 169414 Entyvio Takeda Canada Inc. N/A 2015-01-29 2021-01-29 Yes 2023-07-29 velpatasvir 190521 Epclusa Gilead Sciences Canada Inc.

Vosevi 2016-07-11 2022-07-11 Yes 2025-01-11 venetoclax 190761 Venclexta AbbVie Corporation N/A 2016-09-30 2022-09-30 N/A 2024-09-30 vernakalant hydrochloride 190817 Brinavess Cipher Pharmaceuticals Inc. N/A 2017-03-13 2023-03-13 N/A 2025-03-13 vilanterol trifenatate 157301 Breo Ellipta GlaxoSmithKline Inc. Anoro ElliptaTrelegy Ellipta 2013-07-03 2019-07-03 Yes 2022-01-03 vilazodone hydrochloride 176820 Viibryd Allergan Inc.

N/A 2015-07-16 2021-07-16 Yes 2024-01-16 von willebrand factor (recombinant) (vonicog alfa) 213188 Vonvendi Takeda Canada Inc. N/A 2019-01-10 2025-01-10 N/A 2027-01-10 vorapaxar sulfate 179320 Zontivity Toprol Acquisition LLC N/A 2016-05-13 2022-05-13 N/A 2024-05-13 voretigene neparvovec 233097 Luxturna Novartis Pharmaceuticals Canada Inc. N/A 2020-10-13 2026-10-13 Yes 2029-04-13 vortioxetine hydrobromide 159019 Trintellix Lundbeck Canada Inc.

N/A 2014-10-22 2020-10-22 Yes 2023-04-22 voxilaprevir 202324 Vosevi Gilead Sciences Canada Inc. N/A 2017-08-16 2023-08-16 N/A 2025-08-16 zanubrutinib 242748 Brukinsa BeiGene Switzerland GmbH N/A 2021-03-01 2027-03-01 N/A 2029-03-01The fee as of April 1, 2021 is $9,756 Register of Certificates of Supplementary Protection and Applications Guidance Document. Certificate of Supplementary Protection Regulations - summary Notice.

Publication of update to the Guidance Document. Certificate of Supplementary Protection Regulations CSP Application Form (effective January 6, 2021) CSP Application Form (effective April 1, 2020 to January 5, 2021) CSP Application Form (effective May 15, 2019 to March 31, 2020) CSP Application Form (effective September 22, 2018 to May 14, 2019) CSP Application Form (from September 21, 2017 to September 21, 2018) Advance Payment Details for Master Files for Human and Disinfectant Drugs, and Certificate of Supplementary Protection Applications How to Pay Fees to Health Products and Food Branch (HPFB) Background Register of Certificates of Supplementary Protection and Applications Certificates of Supplementary Protection and Applications - Human Use Certificate of Supplementary Protection (CSP) and/or Application Number Medicinal Ingredient(s) New Drug Submission (NDS) Number Patent Number Patent Expiry Dateyyyy-mm-dd Application Status CSP Term Beginsyyyy-mm-dd CSP Term Endsyyyy-mm-dd 900039 abemaciclib 215268 2747055 2029-12-15 Issued 2029-12-16 2031-12-15 900045 acalabrutinib 214504 2841886 2032-07-11 Issued 2032-07-12 2034-07-11 900056 alpelisib 226941 2734819 2029-09-08 Issued 2029-09-09 2031-09-08 900035 antihemophilic factor (recombinant, B-domain deleted, pegylated) (also known as damoctocog alfa pegol) 210935 2586379 2025-11-14 Issued 2025-11-15 2027-11-14 900027 apalutamide 211942 2875767 2033-06-04 Issued 2033-06-05 2033-07-04 900026 baricitinib 193687 2718271 2029-03-10 Issued 2029-03-11 2031-03-10 900012 benralizumab 204008 2685222 2028-05-14 Issued 2028-05-15 2030-05-14 900028 bictegravir sodium / emtricitabine / tenofovir alafenamide hemifumarate 203718 2416757 2021-07-20 Refused 900020 brigatinib 210369 2723961 2029-05-21 Issued 2029-05-22 2031-05-21 900015 brodalumab 195317 2663537 2027-10-01 Issued 2027-10-02 2029-10-01 900060 brolucizumab 226224 2727839 2029-06-25 Issued 2029-06-26 2031-06-25 900057 cabotegravir (cabotegravir sodium) 227315 2606282 2026-04-28 Issued 2026-04-29 2028-04-28 900063 cedazuridine / decitabine 234610 2702274 2028-10-16 Issued 2028-10-17 2030-10-16 900022 cenegermin 218145 2346257 2019-10-11 Refused 900083 ciclesonide 200882 2888428 2033-12-18 Pending 900011 coagulation factor IX (recombinant), pegylated 201114 2462930 2022-10-09 Refused 900052 coagulation factor IX (recombinant), pegylated 201114 2665480 2027-10-04 Refused 900019 crisaborole 206906 2597982 2026-02-16 Issued 2026-02-17 2028-02-16 900041 dacomitinib 214572 2565812 2025-04-25 Issued 2025-04-26 2027-04-25 900058 darolutamide 226146 2777896 2030-10-27 Issued 2030-10-28 2032-10-27 900017 darunavir ethanolate / cobicistat / emtricitabine / tenofovir alafenamide hemifumarate 199705 2678907 2028-02-22 Issued 2028-02-23 2030-02-22 900051 dolutegravir (dolutegravir sodium) / lamivudine 220275 3003988 2031-01-24 Issued 2031-01-25 2033-01-24 900021 dolutegravir (dolutegravir sodium) / rilpivirine (rilpivirine hydrochloride) 206402 2606282 2026-04-28 Refused 900034 doravirine 211293 2794377 2031-03-28 Issued 2031-03-29 2033-03-28 900004 dupilumab 201285 2737044 2029-10-27 Issued 2029-10-28 2031-10-27 900010 durvalumab 202953 2778714 2030-11-24 Issued 2030-11-25 2032-11-04 900024 emicizumab 212635 2817964 2031-11-17 Issued 2031-11-18 2033-08-03 900053 entrectinib 227517 2693901 2028-07-08 Issued 2028-07-09 2030-07-08 900074 eptinezumab 233288 2836649 2032-05-21 Issued 2032-05-22 2034-05-21 900070 erdafitinib 224529 2796204 2031-04-28 Issued 2031-04-29 2033-04-28 900025 erenumab 208607 2746858 2029-12-18 Issued 2029-12-19 2031-12-18 900018 ertugliflozin 204724 2733795 2029-08-17 Issued 2029-08-18 2031-08-17 900076 estetrol monohydrate / drospirenone 236197 2448278 2022-05-23 Issued 2022-05-24 2024-05-23 900033 fluticasone furoate, umeclidinium (as bromide), vilanterol (as trifenatate) 204880 2781487 2030-11-29 Issued 2030-11-30 2032-11-29 900044 galcanezumab 219521 2802102 2031-06-07 Issued 2031-06-08 2033-06-07 900055 gilteritinib fumarate 227918 2760061 2030-05-06 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Issued 2031-12-10 2033-12-09 900081 trastuzumab / deruxtecan 242104 2928794 2035-01-28 Pending 900064 tucatinib 235295 2632194 2026-11-15 Issued 2026-11-16 2028-11-15 900049 upadacitinib 223734 2781891 2030-12-01 Issued 2030-12-02 2032-12-01 900006 varicella-zoster levitra glycoprotein E (gE) 200244 2600905 2026-03-01 Refused 900075 zanubrutinib 242748 2902686 2034-04-22 Issued 2034-04-23 2036-03-02 Certificates of Supplementary Protection and Applications - Veterinary Use Certificate of Supplementary Protection (CSP) and/orApplication Number Medicinal Ingredient(s) New Drug Submission (NDS) Number Patent Number Patent Expiry Dateyyyy-mm-dd Application Status CSP Term Beginsyyyy-mm-dd CSP Term Endsyyyy-mm-dd 900077 esafoxolaner / eprinomectin / praziquantel 234676 2848317 2032-09-12 Pending 900013 lotilaner 193712 2747354 2029-12-17 Issued 2029-12-18 2031-12-17 900047 sarolaner/moxidectin/pyrantel (as pyrantel pamoate) 210868 2882200 2033-09-04 Issued 2033-09-05 2034-09-27 900037 sarolaner / selamectin 190913 2828397 2032-02-23 Issued 2032-02-24 2033-11-07 Background The Register of Certificates of Supplementary Protection (CSP) and Applications is maintained pursuant to the Certificate of Supplementary Protection Regulations and the Patent Act. The register includes information from CSPs and CSP applications.

Under the subsection 115(1) of the Patent Act, the issuance of a CSP grants the certificate's holder and their legal representatives the same legal rights, privileges and liberties that are granted by the patent set out in the certificate, but only with respect to the making, constructing, using and selling of any drug that contains the medicinal ingredient, or combination of medicinal ingredients. The format of the register is an electronic table. The register lists, in alphabetical order, the medicinal ingredient(s) in the CSPs and CSP applications.

Information regarding the patent set out in the CSP or CSP application is available at the Canadian Intellectual Property Office. For comments or questions, or to obtain a copy of a CSP or CSP application details, please contact the Office of Patented Medicines and Liaison by email at hc.opml-bmbl.sc@canada.ca or by telephone at 613-941-7281..

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Certificate of Supplementary Protection Regulations CSP Application Form (effective January 6, 2021) CSP Application Form (effective April 1, 2020 to January 5, 2021) CSP Application Form (effective May 15, 2019 to March 31, 2020) CSP Application Form (effective September 22, 2018 to May 14, 2019) CSP Application Form (from September 21, 2017 to September 21, 2018) Advance Payment Details for Master Files for Human and Disinfectant Drugs, and Certificate of Supplementary Protection Applications How to Pay Fees to Health Products and Food Branch (HPFB) Background Register of Certificates of Supplementary Protection and Applications Certificates of Supplementary Protection and Applications - Human Use Certificate of Supplementary Protection (CSP) and/or Application Number Medicinal Ingredient(s) New Drug Submission (NDS) Number Patent Number Patent Expiry Dateyyyy-mm-dd Application Status CSP Term Beginsyyyy-mm-dd CSP Term Endsyyyy-mm-dd 900039 abemaciclib 215268 2747055 2029-12-15 Issued 2029-12-16 2031-12-15 900045 acalabrutinib 214504 2841886 2032-07-11 Issued 2032-07-12 2034-07-11 900056 alpelisib 226941 2734819 2029-09-08 Issued 2029-09-09 2031-09-08 900035 antihemophilic factor (recombinant, B-domain deleted, pegylated) (also known as damoctocog alfa pegol) 210935 2586379 2025-11-14 Issued 2025-11-15 2027-11-14 900027 apalutamide 211942 2875767 2033-06-04 Issued 2033-06-05 2033-07-04 900026 baricitinib 193687 2718271 2029-03-10 Issued 2029-03-11 2031-03-10 900012 benralizumab 204008 2685222 2028-05-14 Issued 2028-05-15 2030-05-14 900028 bictegravir sodium / emtricitabine / tenofovir alafenamide hemifumarate 203718 2416757 2021-07-20 Refused 900020 brigatinib 210369 2723961 2029-05-21 Issued 2029-05-22 2031-05-21 900015 brodalumab 195317 2663537 2027-10-01 Issued 2027-10-02 2029-10-01 900060 brolucizumab 226224 2727839 2029-06-25 Issued 2029-06-26 2031-06-25 900057 cabotegravir (cabotegravir sodium) 227315 2606282 2026-04-28 Issued 2026-04-29 2028-04-28 900063 cedazuridine / decitabine 234610 2702274 2028-10-16 Issued 2028-10-17 2030-10-16 900022 cenegermin 218145 2346257 2019-10-11 Refused 900083 ciclesonide 200882 2888428 2033-12-18 Pending 900011 coagulation factor IX (recombinant), pegylated 201114 2462930 2022-10-09 Refused 900052 coagulation factor IX (recombinant), pegylated 201114 2665480 2027-10-04 Refused 900019 crisaborole 206906 2597982 2026-02-16 Issued 2026-02-17 2028-02-16 900041 dacomitinib 214572 2565812 2025-04-25 Issued 2025-04-26 2027-04-25 900058 darolutamide 226146 2777896 2030-10-27 Issued 2030-10-28 2032-10-27 900017 darunavir ethanolate / cobicistat / emtricitabine / tenofovir alafenamide hemifumarate 199705 2678907 2028-02-22 Issued 2028-02-23 2030-02-22 900051 dolutegravir (dolutegravir sodium) / lamivudine 220275 3003988 2031-01-24 Issued 2031-01-25 2033-01-24 900021 dolutegravir (dolutegravir sodium) / rilpivirine (rilpivirine hydrochloride) 206402 2606282 2026-04-28 Refused 900034 doravirine 211293 2794377 2031-03-28 Issued 2031-03-29 2033-03-28 900004 dupilumab 201285 2737044 2029-10-27 Issued 2029-10-28 2031-10-27 900010 durvalumab 202953 2778714 2030-11-24 Issued 2030-11-25 2032-11-04 900024 emicizumab 212635 2817964 2031-11-17 Issued 2031-11-18 2033-08-03 900053 entrectinib 227517 2693901 2028-07-08 Issued 2028-07-09 2030-07-08 900074 eptinezumab 233288 2836649 2032-05-21 Issued 2032-05-22 2034-05-21 900070 erdafitinib 224529 2796204 2031-04-28 Issued 2031-04-29 2033-04-28 900025 erenumab 208607 2746858 2029-12-18 Issued 2029-12-19 2031-12-18 900018 ertugliflozin 204724 2733795 2029-08-17 Issued 2029-08-18 2031-08-17 900076 estetrol monohydrate / drospirenone 236197 2448278 2022-05-23 Issued 2022-05-24 2024-05-23 900033 fluticasone furoate, umeclidinium (as bromide), vilanterol (as trifenatate) 204880 2781487 2030-11-29 Issued 2030-11-30 2032-11-29 900044 galcanezumab 219521 2802102 2031-06-07 Issued 2031-06-08 2033-06-07 900055 gilteritinib fumarate 227918 2760061 2030-05-06 Issued 2030-05-07 2032-05-06 900062 glasdegib 225793 2690953 2028-06-16 Issued 2028-06-17 2030-06-16 900001 glecaprevir / pibrentasvir 202233 2807847 2031-10-12 Refused 900014 glycopyrronium (as bromide) / formoterol fumarate dihydrate 201306 2763936 2030-05-28 Refused 900003 guselkumab 200590 2635692 2026-12-28 Issued 2026-12-29 2028-12-28 900032 inotersen (inotersen sodium) 214274 2797792 2031-04-29 Issued 2031-04-30 2033-04-29 900023 insulin glargine / lixisenatide 207006 2740685 2029-10-09 Issued 2029-10-10 2031-10-09 900029 lanadelumab 213920 2786019 2031-01-06 Issued 2031-01-07 2033-01-06 900043 larotrectinib (larotrectinib sulfate) 219998 2741313 2029-10-21 Issued 2029-10-22 2031-10-21 900066 lefamulin (supplied as lefamulin acetate) 233292 2678795 2028-03-19 Issued 2028-03-20 2030-03-19 900069 lemborexant 231286 2811895 2031-09-20 Issued 2031-09-21 2033-09-20 900007 letermovir 204165 2524069 2024-04-17 Issued 2024-04-18 2026-04-17 900009 lifitegrast 199810 2609053 2026-05-17 Issued 2026-05-18 2028-05-17 900040 lorlatinib 215733 2863892 2033-02-20 Issued 2033-02-21 2034-02-23 900071 luspatercept 236441 2733911 2029-08-13 Issued 2029-08-14 2031-08-13 900002 neisseria meningitidis grp B recombinant lipoprotein 2086 subfamily A / neisseria meningitidis grp B recombinant lipoprotein 2086 subfamily B 195550 2463476 2022-10-11 Issued 2022-10-12 2024-10-11 900008 olaratumab 203478 2680945 2026-06-19 Issued 2026-06-20 2028-06-19 900072 ozanimod (ozanimod hydrochloride) 232761 2723904 2029-05-14 Issued 2029-05-15 2031-05-14 900073 ozanimod (ozanimod hydrochloride) 232761 2780772 2030-11-15 Withdrawn 900080 pertuzumab, trastuzumab 237402 2788253 2032-08-29 Pending 900067 polatuzumab vedotin 232303 2693255 2028-07-15 Issued 2028-07-16 2030-07-15 900079 ponesimod 239537 2968180 2035-12-10 Pending 900050 prasterone 198822 2696127 2028-08-08 Withdrawn 900068 remdesivir 240551 2804840 2031-07-22 Issued 2031-07-23 2033-07-22 900016 ribociclib (ribociclib succinate) 203884 2734802 2029-08-20 Issued 2029-08-21 2031-08-20 900065 ripretinib 234688 2875970 2032-06-07 Issued 2032-06-08 2034-06-07 900042 risankizumab 215753 2816950 2031-11-02 Issued 2031-11-03 2033-11-02 900078 risdiplam 242373 2948561 2035-05-11 Pending 900031 rivaroxaban 211611 2451258 2022-06-07 Pending 900046 romosozumab 197713 2607197 2026-04-28 Issued 2026-04-29 2028-04-28 900061 satralizumab 233642 2699834 2029-09-25 Issued 2029-09-26 2031-09-25 900005 semaglutide 202059 2601784 2026-03-20 Issued 2026-03-21 2028-03-20 900054 siponimod 223225 2747437 2029-12-16 Withdrawn 900059 siponimod 223225 2747992 2029-12-21 Issued 2029-12-22 2031-12-21 900038 suvorexant 160233 2670892 2027-11-30 Refused 900048 talazoparib (talazoparib tosylate) 220584 2732797 2029-07-27 Issued 2029-07-28 2031-07-27 900082 tepotinib hydrochloride 242300 2693600 2028-04-29 Pending 900036 tezacaftor / Ivacaftor 211292 2742821 2028-11-12 Issued 2028-11-13 2030-11-12 900030 tisagenlecleucel 213547 2820681 2031-12-09 Issued 2031-12-10 2033-12-09 900081 trastuzumab / deruxtecan 242104 2928794 2035-01-28 Pending 900064 tucatinib 235295 2632194 2026-11-15 Issued 2026-11-16 2028-11-15 900049 upadacitinib 223734 2781891 2030-12-01 Issued 2030-12-02 2032-12-01 900006 varicella-zoster levitra glycoprotein E (gE) 200244 2600905 2026-03-01 Refused 900075 zanubrutinib 242748 2902686 2034-04-22 Issued 2034-04-23 2036-03-02 Certificates of Supplementary Protection and Applications - Veterinary Use Certificate of Supplementary Protection (CSP) and/orApplication Number Medicinal Ingredient(s) New Drug Submission (NDS) Number Patent Number Patent Expiry Dateyyyy-mm-dd Application Status CSP Term Beginsyyyy-mm-dd CSP Term Endsyyyy-mm-dd 900077 esafoxolaner / eprinomectin / praziquantel 234676 2848317 2032-09-12 Pending 900013 lotilaner 193712 2747354 2029-12-17 Issued 2029-12-18 2031-12-17 900047 sarolaner/moxidectin/pyrantel (as pyrantel pamoate) 210868 2882200 2033-09-04 Issued 2033-09-05 2034-09-27 900037 sarolaner / selamectin 190913 2828397 2032-02-23 Issued 2032-02-24 2033-11-07 Background The Register of Certificates of Supplementary Protection (CSP) and Applications is maintained pursuant to the Certificate of Supplementary Protection Regulations and the Patent Act. The register includes information from CSPs and CSP applications.

Under the subsection 115(1) of the Patent Act, the issuance of a CSP grants the certificate's holder and their legal representatives the same legal rights, privileges and liberties that are granted by the patent set out in the certificate, but only with respect to the making, constructing, using and selling of any drug that contains the medicinal ingredient, or combination of medicinal ingredients. The format of the register is an electronic table. The register lists, in alphabetical order, the medicinal ingredient(s) in the CSPs and CSP applications.

Information regarding the patent set out in the CSP or CSP application is available at the Canadian Intellectual Property Office. For comments or questions, or to obtain a copy of a CSP or CSP application details, please contact the Office of Patented Medicines and Liaison by email at hc.opml-bmbl.sc@canada.ca or by telephone at 613-941-7281..